abu dhabi


abu dhabi

Travel to Abu Dhabi. Explore amazing experiences, make memories, soak up the sun and find a piece of paradise. Welcome to Abu Dhabi’s official Tourism website.


Explo e cul u e a Louv e Abu Dhabi

Saadiya Isla d, Abu Dhabi

Majes ic Sheikh Zayed G a d Mosque

Sheikh Rashid Bi Saeed S ee , Abu Dhabi

S o ies of a ci y a Qas Al Hos

Al Hos , Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi (UK: ˈæbuːˈdɑːbi, US: ˈɑːbuː; A abic: أَبُو ظَبْيٍ Abū Ẓabī A abic p o u cia io : ɐˈbuˈðˤɑbi)5 is he capi al a d he seco d-mos populous ci y (af e Dubai) of he U i ed A ab Emi a es. I ‘s also he capi al of he Emi a e of Abu Dhabi. The ci y of Abu Dhabi is loca ed o a isla d i he Pe sia Gulf, off he Ce al Wes Coas . Mos of he ci y a d he Emi a e eside o he mai la d co ec ed o he es of he cou y. As of 2021upda e, Abu Dhabi’s u ba a ea had a es ima ed popula io of 1.5 millio ,6 ou of 2.9 millio i he emi a e of Abu Dhabi, as of 2016.7 The Abu Dhabi I ves me Au ho i y is headqua e ed i he ci y, a d was he wo ld’s 5 h la ges sove eig weal h fu d i 2021.8 Abu Dhabi i self has ove a illio US dolla s wo h of asse s u de ma ageme i a combi a io of va ious sove eig weal h fu ds headqua e ed he e.9

Abu Dhabi houses local a d fede al gove me offices a d is he home of he U i ed A ab Emi a es Gove me a d he Sup eme Pe oleum Cou cil. The ci y is home o he P eside of he UAE, who is a membe of he Al Nahya family. Abu Dhabi’s apid developme a d u ba iza io , coupled wi h he massive oil a d gas ese ves a d p oduc io a d ela ively high ave age i come, have a sfo med i i o a la ge, developed me opolis. I is he cou y’s ce e of poli ics a d i dus y, a d a majo cul u e a d comme ce ce e . Abu Dhabi accou s fo abou wo- hi ds of he oughly $400 billio UAE eco omy.10

Co e s

His o yedi

The a ea su ou di g Abu Dhabi is full of a chaeological evide ce f om his o ical civiliza io s, such as he Umm a -Na Cul u e, which da es back f om he hi d mille ium BC. O he se leme s we e also fou d fa he ou side he mode ci y of Abu Dhabi, i cludi g he eas e 11 a d wes e egio s of he Emi a e.12

E ymologyedi

Abu is A abic fo fa he , a d Dhabi is he A abic wo d fo gazelle. Abu Dhabi mea s Fa he of Gazelle. I is hough ha his ame came abou because of he abu da ce of gazelles i he a ea a d a folk ale i volvi g Shakhbu bi Dhiyab al Nahya .513

O igi s of Al Nahya edi

The Ba i Yas was o igi ally ce e ed o he Liwa Oasis i he wes e egio of he Emi a e. This ibe was he mos sig ifica i he a ea, havi g ove 20 subsec io s. I 1793, he uli g Al Bu Falah subsec io mig a ed o he isla d of Abu Dhabi o he coas of he Pe sia Gulf due o he discove y of f esh wa e he e. The ge ealogically se io family wi hi his sec io was he Nahya family, which is ow he uli g family of Abu Dhabi.14

Pea l adeedi

The pea l divi g busi ess was a key i dus y p io o he discove y of oil ese ves. Acco di g o a sou ce abou pea li g, he Pe sia Gulf was he bes loca io fo pea ls.15 Pea l dive s dive fo o e o h ee mi u es a d would have dove up o hi y imes pe day. The e we e o ai a ks a d a y o he so of mecha ical device was fo bidde . The dive s had a lea he ose clip a d lea he cove i gs o hei fi ge s a d big oes o p o ec hem while hey sea ched fo oys e s.16 The dive s we e o paid fo a day’s wo k bu eceived a po io of he seaso ‘s ea i gs.17

T ucial coas edi

I he 19 h ce u y, as a esul of ea ies (k ow as uces which gave he coas i s ame) e e ed i o be wee G ea B i ai a d he sheikhs of he A ab S a es of he Pe sia Gulf, B i ai became he p edomi a i flue ce i he a ea.18 The mai pu pose of B i ish i e es was o p o ec he ade ou e o I dia f om pi a es, he ce, he ea lie ame fo he a ea, he Pi a e Coas . Af e pi acy was supp essed, o he co side a io s came i o play, such as a s a egic eed of he B i ish o exclude o he powe s f om he egio . Followi g hei wi hd awal f om I dia i 1947, he B i ish mai ai ed hei i flue ce i Abu Dhabi as i e es i he oil po e ial of he Pe sia Gulf g ew.19

Fi s oil discove iesedi

I he mid o la e 1930s, as he pea l ade decli ed, i e es g ew i he oil possibili ies of he egio . O 5 Ja ua y 1936, Pe oleum Developme T ucial Coas L d (PDTC), a associa e compa y of he I aq Pe oleum Compa y, e e ed i o a co cessio ag eeme wi h he ule , Sheikh Shakhbu bi Sul a Al Nahya , o explo e fo oil. This was followed by a seve y-five-yea co cessio sig ed i Ja ua y 1939. Howeve , owi g o he dese e ai , i la d explo a io was f augh wi h difficul ies. I 1953, D’A cy Explo a io Compa y, he explo a io a m of BP, ob ai ed a offsho e co cessio which was he a sfe ed o a compa y c ea ed o ope a e he co cessio : Abu Dhabi Ma i e A eas (ADMA) was a joi ve u e be wee BP a d Compag ie F a çaise des Pé oles (la e To al). I 1958, usi g a ma i e d illi g pla fo m, he ADMA E e p ise, oil was s uck i he Umm Shaif field a a dep h of abou 2,669 me es (8,755 f ). This was followed i 1959 by PDTC’s o sho e discove y well a Mu ba No.3.20

I 1962, he compa y discove ed he Bu Hasa field a d ADMA followed i 1965 wi h he discove y of he Zakum offsho e field. Today, i addi io o he oil fields me io ed, he mai p oduci g fields o sho e a e Asab, Sahil a d Shah, a d offsho e a e al-Bu duq, a d Abu al-Bukhoosh.20

Geog aphyedi

The ci y of Abu Dhabi is o he sou heas e side of he A abia Pe i sula, adjoi i g he Pe sia Gulf. I is o a isla d less ha 250 me es (820 f ) f om he mai la d a d is joi ed o he mai la d by he Maq a a d Mussafah B idges. A hi d, Sheikh Zayed B idge, desig ed by Zaha Hadid, ope ed i la e 2010. Abu Dhabi Isla d is also co ec ed o Saadiya Isla d by a five-la e mo o way b idge. Al-Maf aq b idge co ec s he ci y o Reem Isla d a d was comple ed i ea ly 2011. This is a mul i-laye i e cha ge b idge a d i has 27 la es which allow oughly 25,000 au omobiles o move pe hou . The e a e h ee majo b idges i he p ojec , he la ges has eigh la es, fou leavi g Abu Dhabi ci y a d fou comi g i .21

Mos of Abu Dhabi ci y is loca ed o he isla d i self, bu i has ma y subu ba dis ic s o he mai la d, fo example, Khalifa Ci y A, B, a d C; Khalifa Ci y Al Raha Beach;22 Al Bahia Ci y A, B, a d C; Al Shahama; Al Rahba; Be wee Two B idges; Ba iyas; Shamkha; Al Wa hba a d Mussafah Reside ial.

Gulf wa e s of Abu Dhabi holds he wo ld’s la ges popula io of I do-Pacific humpbacked dolphi s.232425 To he eas of he isla d is he Ma g ove Na io al Pa k, loca ed o Al Qu m Co iche. Al-Qu m (ٱلْقُرْم) is A abic fo The Ma g ove.26

Clima eedi

Abu Dhabi has a ho dese clima e (Köppe clima e classifica io BWh). Su y blue skies ca be expec ed h oughou he yea . The mo hs of Ju e h ough Sep embe a e ge e ally ex emely ho a d humid wi h maximum empe a u es ave agi g above 40 °C (104 °F). Du i g his ime, sa ds o ms occu i e mi e ly, i some cases educi g visibili y o a few me e s.27

The coole seaso is f om Novembe o Ma ch, which a ges be wee mode a ely ho o mild. This pe iod also sees de se fog o some days a d a few days of ai . O ave age, Ja ua y is he cooles mo h of he yea , while Augus is he ho es . Si ce he T opic of Ca ce passes h ough he emi a e, he sou he pa falls wi hi he T opics. Howeve , despi e he cooles mo h havi g a 18.8 °C (65.8 °F) ave age, i s clima e is fa oo d y o be classed as opical.

Sou ce 3: Time a d Da e (dewpoi s, be wee 2005-2015)30

Twi ci iesedi

Fo i s geog aphy, Abu Dhabi has bee wi ed wi h:

Gove me edi

U de he ule of he Depa me of Mu icipal Affai s, he ci y is pa of he Ce al Capi al Dis ic ,a which is sepa a e f om he eas e a d wes e mu icipal egio s of he Emi a e of Abu Dhabi. The mai se leme of he eas e egio , officially Al Ai Regio si ce a dec ee by Sheikh Khalifa i Ma ch 2017, is Al Ai Ci y, a d ha of he wes e egio , officially Al Dhaf a Regio as pe he same dec ee,3738 is Madi a Zayed.112

Cou cils such as he Abu Dhabi U ba Pla i g Cou cil a d he Regula io a d Supe visio Bu eau a e espo sible fo i f as uc u e p ojec s i he ci y. Fi a ces a e mai ly h ough he s a e gove me . Because Abu Dhabi is he capi al of he UAE, he p eside ‘s office is loca ed he e.39

The Abu Dhabi Gove me Media Office (ADGMO) was fo med i 2019 a d is espo sible fo ep ese i g he gove me i he media, o ga izi g p ess co fe e ces fo he emi a e a d mo i o i g local a d i e a io al media. I is a s a e-spo so ed o ga iza io ha commu ica es he la es developme s i he capi al, a d he emi a e’s visio , values a d adi io s.40414243

Ci yscapeedi

A chi ec u eedi

The ci y was pla ed u de he guida ce of Sheikh Zayed by Japa ese a chi ec Ka suhiko Takahashi i 1967 i i ially fo a popula io of 40,000.44 The de si y of Abu Dhabi va ies, wi h high employme de si y i he ce al a ea, high eside ial de si ies i ce al dow ow a d lowe de si ies i he subu ba dis ic s. I he de se a eas, mos of he co ce a io is achieved wi h medium- a d high- ise buildi gs. Abu Dhabi’s skysc ape s such as he o able Bu j Mohammed bi Rashid (Wo ld T ade Ce e Abu Dhabi), E ihad Towe s, Abu Dhabi I ves me Au ho i y Towe ,45 he Na io al Ba k of Abu Dhabi headqua e s,46 he Bay u ah (Hil o Ho el) Towe .47 a d he E isala headqua e s a e usually fou d i he fi a cial dis ic s of Abu Dhabi.48 O he o able mode buildi gs i clude he Alda Headqua e s, he fi s ci cula skysc ape i he middle eas 49 a d he Emi a es Palace wi h i s desig i spi ed by A ab he i age.50

The developme of all buildi gs has bee e cou aged i he Abu Dhabi Pla 2030, which will lead o he co s uc io of ma y ew skysc ape s ove he ex decade, pa icula ly i he expa sio of Abu Dhabi’s ce al busi ess dis ic such as he ew developme s o Al Ma yah Isla d a d Al Reem Isla d.51 Abu Dhabi al eady has a umbe of supe all skysc ape s u de co s uc io h oughou he ci y. Some of he alles buildi gs o he skyli e i clude he 382 m (1,253.28 f ) Ce al Ma ke Reside ial Towe , he 324 m (1,062.99 f ) The La dma k a d he 74-s o y, 310 m (1,017.06 f ) Sky Towe , all of hem comple ed. Also, ma y o he skysc ape s ove 150 m (492.13 f ) (500 f ) a e ei he p oposed o app oved a d could a sfo m he ci y’s skyli e. As of July ۲۰۰۸upda e, he e we e 62 high- ise buildi gs 23 o 150 m (75.46 o 492.13 f ) u de co s uc io , app oved fo co s uc io , o p oposed fo co s uc io .52

Sheikh Zayed G a d Mosqueedi

The Sheikh Zayed Mosque ep ese s a key fix u e of he ci y’s a chi ec u al pa imo y. I s co s uc io was i i ia ed u de he admi is a io of he la e P eside Sheikh Zayed bi Sul a Al Nahya , a key figu e i he fou da io of he mode UAE.53

The mosque was co s uc ed wi h ma e ials f om cou ies a ou d he wo ld, i cludi g I aly, Ge ma y, Mo occo, Pakis a , I dia, Tu key, I a , Chi a, he U i ed Ki gdom, New Zeala d, G eece, a d he U i ed A ab Emi a es.54 Mo e ha 3,000 wo ke s a d 38 co ac i g compa ies ook pa i he co s uc io of he mosque. Co side a io of du abili y mo iva ed he choice of ma y ma e ials specified i he desig of he s uc u e. These ma e ials i clude ma ble, s o e, gold, semi-p ecious s o es, c ys als, a d ce amics. Co s uc io bega o 5 Novembe 1996. The buildi g is la ge e ough o safely co ai a maximum of app oxima ely 41,000 people. The ove all s uc u e is 22,412 squa e me es (241,240 squa e fee ). The i e al p aye halls we e i i ially ope ed i Decembe 2007.53

As o e of he mos visi ed buildi gs i he UAE, he Sheikh Zayed G a d Mosque Ce e was es ablished o ma age he day- o-day ope a io s, as a place of wo ship a d F iday ga he i g a d as a ce e of lea i g a d discove y h ough i s educa io a d visi o p og ams.55

I July 2019, he G a d Mosque was lis ed amo g he op global a ac io s by T ipAdviso . As a pa of i s T avele s Choice Awa ds, he avel websi e placed he a chi ec u al mas e piece o umbe h ee ou of he 750 la dma ks co side ed f om 68 cou ies.56

I May 2021, he Sheikh Zayed G a d Mosque Ce e a e ded he A abia T avel Ma ke 2021 exhibi io . This was pa of he ce e ‘s co e s a egy o be ac ive i he eligious a d cul u al aspec s of socie y.57

The Fou de ‘s Memo ialedi

The Fou de ‘s Memo ial, a mo ume a d visi o ce e i Abu Dhabi, U i ed A ab Emi a es (UAE) is a memo ial o Sheikh Zayed bi Sul a Al Nahya , he fi s P eside of he U i ed A ab Emi a es, who died i 2004. The memo ial co sis s of a ope He i age Ga de a d Sa c ua y Ga de a he ce e of which is a cubic pavilio housi g The Co s ella io , a a wo k dedica ed o Zayed’s memo y.58

P eside ial Palaceedi

The UAE P eside ial Palace, Qaṣ Al-Waṭa (Palace of he Na io ),59 ope ed o he public i Ma ch 2019.6061 I was buil o he g ou ds of Ladies beach a d co s uc io was fi ished i 2018.

Mul i-fai h wo ship placesedi

I Sep embe 2019, he co s uc io of UAE’s fi s official sy agogue was a ou ced o begi i 2020, as a pa of he mul i-fai h Ab ahamic Family House complex i Abu Dhabi. I will also give space o a mosque a d a chu ch, he full co s uc io of which was a ou ced o be comple ed by 2022.62

O 22 Sep embe 2019, he Depa me of Commu i y Developme (DCD) i Abu Dhabi held a ce emo y o g a lice ses o 17 chu ches a d he fi s -eve adi io al Hi du emple. The lis ed chu ches we e Ca holic, O hodox a d P o es a chu ches, i cludi g S Joseph’s Ca hed al. The i i ia ive was ake u de he sloga A Call fo Ha mo y, o allow people f om all eligio s a d cul u es o p ac ice hei fai h i he cou y.63

Qas Al Hos edi

Qas Al Hos is he oldes buildi g i he Emi a e of Abu Dhabi, buil by he Ba i Yas ibe i 1761. I was o ce he sea of he gove me a d he palace of he uli g Al Nahya family. Today, i is a museum ope o all visi o s po ayi g he his o y of Abu Dhabi a d ea ly lifes yles.

Pa ks a d ga de sedi

Abu Dhabi has seve al pa ks a d ga de s a d mo e ha 400 kilome es (249 miles) of coas li e, of which 10 kilome es (6 miles) a e public beaches.64

The Lake Pa k

A view f om He i age Pa k

Ma g oves a Ma g ove Na io al Pa k, ea Al Qu m Co iche o Sheikh Zayed Bi Sul a S ee i he eas e pa of he ci y26

Eco omyedi

The UAE’s la ge hyd oca bo weal h gives i o e of he highes GDP pe capi a i he wo ld a d Abu Dhabi ow s he majo i y of hese esou ces—۹۵% of he oil a d 92% of gas.65 Abu Dhabi hus holds 9% of he wo ld’s p ove oil ese ves (98.2b ba els) a d almos 5% of he wo ld’s a u al gas (5.8 billio cubic me es o 200 billio cubic fee ). As of Ap il 2022 oil p oduc io i he UAE was abou 3.0 millio ba els pe day (BPD).66 The UAE is looki g o expa d i s maximum p oduc io capaci y f om app oxima ely 4 millio BPD o 5 millio BPD by 2030.67 I ece yea s, he focus has u ed o gas as i c easi g domes ic co sump io fo powe , desali a io a d ei jec io of gas i o oil fields i c eases dema d. Gas ex ac io is o wi hou i s difficul ies, howeve , as demo s a ed by he sou gas p ojec a Shah whe e he gas is ich i hyd oge sulfide co e a d expe sive o develop a d p ocess.20

I 2009, he gove me dive sified i s eco omic pla s. Se ved by high oil p ices, he cou y’s o -oil a d gas GDP ou s ipped ha a ibu able o he e e gy sec o . No -oil a d gas GDP ow co s i u es 64% of he UAE’s o al GDP. This e d is eflec ed i Abu Dhabi wi h subs a ial ew i ves me i i dus y, eal es a e, ou ism a d e ail. As Abu Dhabi is he la ges oil p oduce of he UAE, i has eaped he mos be efi s f om his e d. I has ake o a ac ive dive sifica io a d libe aliza io p og am o educe he UAE’s elia ce o he hyd oca bo sec o . This is evide i he emphasis o i dus ial dive sifica io wi h he comple io of f ee zo es, I dus ial Ci y of Abu Dhabi, wofou 54 Abu Dhabi media f ee zo e a d he co s uc io of a o he , ICAD II, i he pipeli e. The e has also bee a d ive o p omo e ou ism a d eal es a e wi h he Abu Dhabi Tou ism Au ho i y a d he Tou ism a d Developme I ves me Compa y u de aki g seve al la ge-scale developme p ojec s. These will be se ved by imp oved a spo i f as uc u e, wi h a ew po , a expa ded ai po a d a p oposed ail li k be wee Abu Dhabi a d Dubai all i he developme s ages.68

Abu Dhabi’s Emi a e is he weal hies of he UAE i e ms of G oss domes ic p oduc (GDP) a d pe capi a i come. Mo e ha $1  illio is i ves ed wo ldwide i he ci y. I 2010, he GDP pe capi a eached $49,600, which a ks i h i he wo ld. Taxa io i Abu Dhabi, as i he es of he UAE, is il fo a eside o a o -ba k, o -oil compa y. Abu Dhabi is also pla i g ma y fu u e p ojec s sha i g wi h he Coope a io Cou cil fo he A ab S a es of he Gulf (GCC) a d aki g 29% of all he GCC fu u e pla i gs. The UAE has a fas -g owi g eco omy: i 2006 he pe capi a i come g ew by 9%, p ovidi g a GDP pe capi a of $49,700 a d a ki g hi d i he wo ld a pu chasi g powe pa i y. Abu Dhabi’s sove eig weal h fu d, he Abu Dhabi I ves me Au ho i y (ADIA), cu e ly es ima ed a $875 billio , is he wo ld’s weal hies sove eig fu d i e ms of o al asse value.69 E ihad Ai ways mai ai s i s headqua e s i Abu Dhabi.70

Abu Dhabi’s gove me is looki g o expa d eve ue f om oil a d gas p oduc io o ou ism a d o he hi gs ha would a ac diffe e ypes of people. This goal is see i he amou of a e io Abu Dhabi is givi g i s I e a io al Ai po . The ai po expe ie ced a 30% g ow h i passe ge usage i 2009.71 This idea of dive sifyi g he eco omy is also see i he Abu Dhabi Eco omic Visio 203072 pla ed by he Abu Dhabi U ba Pla i g Cou cil. I his pla , Abu Dhabi’s eco omy will be sus ai able a d o depe de o a y si gle sou ce of eve ue. Mo e specifically he o -oil po io of i come is pla ed o be i c eased f om abou 40% o abou 70%.69 As of July 2019, Abu Dhabi alloca ed $163 millio o fi a ce global e e ai me pa e s as pa of i s pla o dive sify he eco omy a d wea i off oil.73

Ma y Hollywood a d o he a io al film p oduc io eams have used pa s of he UAE as filmi g loca io s. Neighbo i g Dubai ge s a lo of a e io , bu i ece yea s Abu Dhabi has become a popula des i a io . The E ihad Towe s a d Emi a es Palace Ho el we e some of he ci y’s la dma ks used as filmi g loca io s fo he movie Fu ious 7, i which ca s ush h ough he buildi g a d smashed h ough he wi dows of he owe s.74

I 2018, Abu Dhabi lau ched Ghada 21, a s i g of i i ia ives o dive sify he eco omy. The o al i jec io is AED 50 billio .75

The e a e fou mai a eas hese i i ia ives mus fall u de busi ess a d i ves me , socie y, k owledge a d i ova io a d lifes yle. The fi s phase i cludes ove 50 i i ia ives ha eflec he p io i ies of ci ize s, eside s a d i ves o s.76

I 2020, low oil p ices a d he COVID-19 pa demic p essed he egio al ba ks of Abu Dhabi o cu off hei employees. I July, UAE’s hi d-la ges le de , Abu Dhabi Comme cial Ba k (ADCB) laid off 400 employees, b eaki g i s commi me o o cu s aff due o he c isis.77

U ili y se vicesedi

The desali a ed wa e supply a d powe p oduc io a e ma aged by he Abu Dhabi Wa e a d Elec ici y Au ho i y (ADWEA). As of 2006upda e, i supplied 560.2 MiGD (millio impe ial gallo s pe day) of wa e ,78 while he wa e dema d fo 2005–۰۶ was es ima ed o be 511 MiGD.79 The E vi o me Age cy of Abu Dhabi (EAD) s a es ha g ou dwa e is he mos sig ifica sou ce of wa e , as well as desali a ed po able wa e , a d ea ed sewage efflue . A 40.6 MiGD, he Umm Al Na s o age is he la ges wa e sou ce fo Abu Dhabi, followed by he ive s Shuweiha a d Taweelah.80 Wi h falli g g ou dwa e level a d isi g popula io de si y, Abu Dhabi faces a seve ely acu e wa e sho age. O ave age each Abu Dhabi eside uses 550 li es (120 imp gal; 150 US gal) of wa e pe day.81 Abu Dhabi daily p oduces 1,532 o es of solid was es which a e dumped a h ee la dfill si es by he Abu Dhabi Mu icipali y.8283 The daily domes ic was ewa e p oduc io is 330 MiGD a d i dus ial was e wa e is 40 MiGD. A la ge po io of he sewe age flows as was e i o s eams, a d sepa a io pla s.83

The ci y’s pe capi a elec ici y co sump io is abou 41,000 kWh a d he o al supplied is 8,367 MW as of 2007upda e.84 The dis ibu io of elec ici y is ca ied ou by compa ies u by SCIPCO Powe a d APC E e gy. As pa of UAE’s E e gy S a egy 2050 o educe he ca bo emissio of powe ge e a io by 70%, Noo Abu Dhabi sola pa k p ojec which is he la ges sola p ojec i he wo ld was comple ed o 2 July 2019.858687 The Abu Dhabi Fi e Se vice u s 13 fi e s a io s ha a e d abou 2,000 fi e a d escue calls pe yea .

S a e-ow ed E isala a d p iva e du commu ica io compa ies p ovide elepho e a d cell pho e se vice o he ci y. Cellula cove age is ex e sive, a d bo h GSM a d CDMA (f om E isala a d Du) se vices a e available. E isala , he gove me -ow ed elecommu ica io s p ovide , held a vi ual mo opoly ove elecommu ica io se vices i Abu Dhabi p io o he es ablishme of o he , smalle elecommu ica io s compa ies such as Emi a es I eg a ed Telecommu ica io s Compa y (EITC – be e k ow as Du) i 2006. The I e e was i oduced i o Abu Dhabi i 1995. The cu e e wo k is suppo ed by a ba dwid h of 6 GB, wi h 50,000 dialup a d 150,000 b oadba d po s.

E isala a ou ced impleme i g a fibe – o- he-home (FTTH) e wo k i Abu Dhabi du i g he hi d qua e of 2009 o make he emi a e he wo ld’s fi s ci y o have such a e wo k.88

Ci y pla i gedi

Abu Dhabi i he 1970s was pla ed fo a p edic ed opmos popula io of 600,000. Followi g he u ba pla i g ideals of he ime pe iod, he ci y has high-de si y owe blocks a d wide g id-pa e oads.89 The popula io de si y is a i s apex o he mos o he ly pa of he isla d. A his poi , he mai s ee s have a la ge amou of 20- o 30-s o y owe s. These owe s a e i a ec a gula pa e , a d i side is a o di a y g id pa e of oads wi h low ise buildi gs such as 2-s o y villas o 6-s o y low- ise buildi gs.

Due o his pla i g, a mode ci y wi h all offices, apa me buildi gs, b oad bouleva ds, a d busy shops is p ese . P i cipal ho oughfa es a e he Co iche, Ai po Road, Sheikh Zayed S ee , Hamda S ee , a d Khalifa S ee . Abu Dhabi is k ow i he egio fo i s g ee e y; he fo me dese s ip oday i cludes ume ous pa ks a d ga de s. The desig of he i e ci y oads a d mai oads a e qui e o ga ized. S a i g f om he Co iche, all ho izo al s ee s a e oddly umbe ed, while all ve ical s ee s a e eve ly umbe ed. Thus, he Co iche is S ee No. 1, Khalifa S ee is S ee No. 3, Hamda S ee is S ee No. 5, Elec a S ee is S ee No. 7 a d so o . Co ve sely, Salam S ee is S No. 8.90

Mail is ge e ally delive ed o pos -office boxes o ly; howeve , he e is doo – o-doo delive y fo comme cial o ga iza io s. The e a e ma y pa ks h oughou he ci y. E a ce is usually f ee fo child e , howeve , he e is of e a e a ce fee fo adul s. The Co iche, he ci y’s seaside p ome ade, is abou 10 kilome es (6.2 mi) i le g h, wi h ga de s, playg ou ds, a d a BMXska eboa d i g.91

I 2007 he Abu Dhabi U ba Pla i g Cou cil (UPC) was es ablished, which is he age cy espo sible fo he fu u e of Abu Dhabi’s u ba e vi o me s a d he expe au ho i y behi d he visio a y Pla Abu Dhabi 2030 U ba S uc u e F amewo k Pla ha was published i Sep embe 2007.51 The UPC is also wo ki g o simila pla s fo he egio s of Al-Ai a d Al-Gha bia.

Because of he apid developme of Abu Dhabi, a umbe of challe ges o he ci y’s u ba o ga iza io have developed, amo g hem:

I 2018, Abu Dhabi was a ked he safes ci y i he wo ld fo he seco d yea u i g by he s a is ical a alysis websi e Numbeo.92

Huma igh sedi

Huma igh s o ga isa io s have heavily c i icized viola io s of huma igh s i Abu Dhabi. As wi h o he pa s of he UAE, fo eig wo ke s a e o give p ope ea me ci a io eeded a d ma y compa ies (bo h gove me a d p iva e) have ye o imp ove hi gs.93

Demog aphicsedi

As he emi a e cove s 67,341 km2 (26,001 sq mi), ea ly 87% of he UAE, he popula io de si y is 21.73km2 (56.3sq mi), maki g i he la ges emi a e i he UAE.96

Abu Dhabi also a ks as he 67 h mos expe sive ci y i he wo ld a d he seco d-mos i he egio behi d Dubai.97

As of 2014upda e, 477,000 of 2,650,000 people livi g i he emi a e we e UAE a io als. App oxima ely 80% of he popula io we e expa ia es.98 The media age i he emi a e was abou 30.1 yea s. The c ude bi h a e, as of 2005upda e, was 13.6%, while he c ude dea h a e was abou 2%.99

A icle 7 of he UAE’s P ovisio al Co s i u io decla es Islam he official s a e eligio of he UAE.100 The gove me subsidises almos 95% of mosques a d employs all imams. A majo i y of mosques a e Maliki o Muwahhid o ie ed.101 The majo i y of he i habi a s of Abu Dhabi a e mig a wo ke s f om Nepal, I dia, Pakis a , E i ea, E hiopia, Somalia, Ba gladesh, S i La ka, Philippi es, he U i ed Ki gdom, F a ce, I aly, a d va ious cou ies f om ac oss he A ab wo ld. Some of hese expa ia es have bee i he cou y fo decades wi h o ly a few of hem awa ded ci ize ship.102 Co seque ly, E glish, Hi di-U du (Hi dus a i), Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Guja a i, Ma a hi, Tulu, Somali, Tig i ya, Amha ic a d Be gali a e widely spoke .103

The a ive-bo popula io a e A abic-speaki g A abs who a e pa of a cla -based socie y. The Al Nahya family, pa of he al-Falah b a ch of he Ba i Yas cla , ules he emi a e a d has a ce al place i socie y.104 The e a e also A abs who a e f om o he pa s of he A ab Wo ld.

T a spo a io edi

O e of he busies s ee s i Abu Dhabi is he Sheikh Zayed Bi Sul a S ee , also k ow as Salam S ee , which goes ea Al Qu m Co iche.26 Co iche is also he o he mai s ee i Abu Dhabi, i ove looks he Pe sia Gulf.

Ai edi

Abu Dhabi I e a io al Ai po (AUH) is he ci y’s mai avia io hub a d he seco d busies ai po i he UAE. Passe ge umbe s a Abu Dhabi I e a io al Ai po ose by 17.2 pe ce i 2015, wi h mo e ha 23 millio avele s passi g h ough i s e mi als du i g ha yea . A 2 d u way a d ew e mi al was also buil ece ly.105

Al Ba ee Execu ive Ai po was he old i e a io al ai po i Abu Dhabi u il he o e above ope ed i 1982. Now i is used by he small mili a y comme cial pla es.

O 30 Ju e 2019, he Depa me of Commu i y Developme (DCD) i Abu Dhabi officially i augu a ed a mul i-fai h p aye oom a Abu Dhabi I e a io al Ai po . Loca ed away f om he mai ai po , he p aye oom aims a e ha ci g he cou y’s posi io as a i e a io al hub fo ole a ce.106

Public a spo edi

Public a spo sys ems i Abu Dhabi i clude he Abu Dhabi public buses, axis, fe ies, a d hyd opla es.107 S ee axis a e easily ecog ized. They a e ei he silve wi h a yellow oof sig ( ewe axis) o whi e a d gold wi h a g ee oof sig (olde axis). All he old axis have bee phased ou . The e a e o old axis available fo a spo a io a ymo e.108

The fi s ow bus e e ed se vice i abou 1969 bu his was all pa of a ve y i fo mal se vice. The e a e o he i e -ci y buses depa i g he Abu Dhabi ce al bus s a io ; hese i e -ci y buses a e o o ly i a-emi a e buses, bu also i e -emi a e se vices. O 30 Ju e 2008, he Depa me of T a spo bega public bus se vice i Abu Dhabi wi h fou ou es.109 The e a e also public buses se vi g he ai po . I a a emp o e ice people o use he bus sys em, all ou es we e ze o-fa e u il he e d of 2008.110 The fou ou es, which ope a e be wee 6 am a d mid igh eve y day, u a a f eque cy of 10 o 20 mi u es.110 Wi hi he fi s week of se vice, he bus e wo k had see high usage. Some of he buses, which have a maximum capaci y of 45 passe ge s, o ly had oom fo s a di g lef . Some bus d ive s epo ed as ma y as 100 passe ge s o a bus a o e ime.111 Due o he ew, ze o-fa e bus se vice success, ma y axi d ive s we e losi g busi ess. Taxi d ive s have see a co side able dec ease i he dema d fo axis while li es we e fo mi g fo he buses.112 The se vice s eadily expa ded a d by he e d of 2008, 230 buses we e i se vice. I 2009, he Depa me of T a spo pla s o have 21 bus ou es i he ci y, ope a ed by 820 buses. A o al of 1,360 buses a e expec ed o be i ope a io by 2010.111

A massive expa sio of public a spo is a icipa ed wi hi he f amewo k of he gove me ‘s Su face T a spo Mas e Pla 2030.113 The expa sio is expec ed o see 130 km (81 mi) of me o a d 340 km (210 mi) of amways a do bus apid a si (BRT) ou es.

Wa e a spo edi

The Emi a e has ma y po s. O e is Po Zayed. The o he s a e Musaffah Po a d Khalifa Po , which ope ed i 2012.114 They a e ow ed by Abu Dhabi Po s Compa y a d ma aged by Abu Dhabi Te mi als.115

A couple of fe ies a e ope a ed by he gove me .116

Cul u eedi

Abu Dhabi has a dive se a d mul icul u al socie y.117 The ci y’s cul u al imp i as a small, e h ically homoge eous pea li g commu i y was cha ged wi h he a ival of o he e h ic g oups a d a io als—fi s by he I a ia s i he ea ly 1900s, a d la e by va ious Asia a d Eu opea e h ici ies i he 1950s a d 1960s. Abu Dhabi has bee c i icised fo pe pe ua i g a class-based socie y, whe e mig a wo ke s a e i he lowe classes, a d suffe abuse which is e demic o he sys em.118 Majo holidays i Abu Dhabi i clude Eid al Fi , which ma ks he e d of Ramada , Eid ul-Adha which ma ks he e d of Hajj, a d Na io al Day (2 Decembe ), which ma ks he fo ma io of he U i ed A ab Emi a es.119

This u ique socioeco omic developme i he Pe sia Gulf has mea ha Abu Dhabi is ge e ally mo e ole a ha i s eighbo s, i cludi g Saudi A abia.120 Emi a is have bee k ow fo hei ole a ce; Ch is ia chu ches, Hi du emples, a d Sikh gu dwa as (wi h he fi s sy agogue comme ci g co s uc io i 2020) ca be fou d alo gside mosques. The cosmopoli a a mosphe e is g adually g owi g a d as a esul , he e a e a va ie y of Asia a d Wes e schools, cul u al ce e s a d hemed es au a s.

Abu Dhabi is home o a umbe of cul u al i s i u io s i cludi g he Cul u al Fou da io a d he Na io al Thea e . The Cul u al Fou da io , while closed fo eco s uc io as of sp i g 2011, is home o he UAE Public Lib a y a d Cul u al Ce e .121 Va ious cul u al socie ies such as he Abu Dhabi Classical Music Socie y have a s o g a d visible followi g i he ci y. The ece ly lau ched Emi a es Fou da io offe s g a s i suppo of he a s, as well as o adva ce scie ce a d ech ology, educa io , e vi o me al p o ec io , a d social developme . The I e a io al P ize fo A abic Fic io (IPAF) will be based i Abu Dhabi. The ci y also s ages hu d eds of co fe e ces a d exhibi io s each yea i i s s a e-of- he-a ve ues, i cludi g he Abu Dhabi Na io al Exhibi io Ce e (ADNEC) which is he Pe sia Gulf’s la ges exhibi io ce e a d welcomes a ou d 1.8 millio visi o s eve y yea .122

The Red Bull Ai Race Wo ld Se ies has bee a spec acula spo i g s aple fo he ci y fo ma y yea s, b i gi g e s of housa ds o he wa e f o .123 A o he majo eve is he Abu Dhabi I e a io al Pe oleum Exhibi io a d Co fe e ce (ADIPEC).124

The dive si y of cuisi e i Abu Dhabi is a eflec io of he cosmopoli a a u e of socie y. A ab food is ve y popula a d is available eve ywhe e i he ci y, f om he small shawa ma o he upscale es au a s i he ci y’s ma y ho els. Fas food a d Sou h Asia cuisi e a e also ve y popula a d a e widely available. The sale a d co sump io of po k, hough o illegal, is egula ed a d i is sold o ly o o -Muslims i desig a ed a eas.125 Simila ly, he sale of alcoholic beve ages is egula ed. A liquo pe mi is equi ed o pu chase alcohol; howeve , alcohol, al hough available i ba s a d es au a s wi hi fou o five s a ho els. Shisha a d qahwa bou iques a e also popula i Abu Dhabi.

Poe y i Abu Dhabi a d he UAE is highly ega ded a d of e is ce ic a ou d he hemes of sa i e, eligio , family, chival y, a d love. Acco di g o a a icle f om a Abu Dhabi ou ism page, sheikhs, eache s, sailo s a d p i ces make a la ge bulk of he poe s wi hi he UAE. A u ique fo m of poe y o he UAE was fo med i he 8 h ce u y by Al Khalil bi Ahmed a d i was w i e i 16 me es (52 fee ). A o he Emi a i poe , Ib Dahe is f om he 17 h ce u y. Dahe is impo a because he used Naba i poe y (AKA Bedoui poe y), poe y w i e i he ve acula i s ead of classical eligious A abic. O he impo a poe s f om he UAE a e Muba ak Al Oqaili (1880–۱۹۵۴), Salem bi Ali al Owais (1887–۱۹۵۹) a d Abdulla bi Sulayem (1905–۱۹۷۶). These poe s made headway i he field of Classical A abic poe y as opposed o he Naba i poe y of he 17 h ce u y.126

Today i Abu Dhabi he e is a g oup called he Abu Dhabi Cul u al Fou da io ha wo ks o p ese ve he a a d cul u e of he ci y. Acco di g o a a icle f om he E glish Pe A las Al Jawahe wal la’li was he fi s ma usc ip o come ou of he UAE. Acco di g o a o he a icle his book was w i e i he 1990s a d was ba ed i he ci y fo some ime fo maki g accusa io s abou he uli g family.127

O Sep embe 21, 2020, Abu Dhabi emoved he equi eme fo a alcohol lice se fo d i ke s i he emi a e. The his o ic modifica io was impleme ed due o he eco omic challe ges ha occu ed amids he COVID-19 pa demic.128

Fo cul u al i flue ces, Abu Dhabi, si ce 2010, has become o e of he majo shoo i g spo s fo ma y films compa ies, i cludi g Hollywood. Some of he mos famous films fea u i g Abu Dhabi a e; The Ki gdom (2007), Sex a d he Ci y 2 (2010),129 A ambam (2013), Baby (2015),130 Fu ious 7 (2015), S a Wa s: The Fo ce Awake s (2015), Dishoom (2016), Wa Machi e (2017), Tige Zi da Hai (2017), Race 3 (2018), Saaho (2019), Six U de g ou d (2019), The Misfi s (2021), Du e (2021).

Educa io edi

Abu Dhabi is home o i e a io al a d local p iva e schools a d u ive si ies, i cludi g gove me -spo so ed INSEAD, New Yo k U ive si y, Masda I s i u e of Scie ce a d Tech ology, New Yo k I s i u e of Tech ology, Highe Colleges of Tech ology, New Yo k Film Academy, Pa is-So bo e U ive si y Abu Dhabi a d Abu Dhabi U ive si y. These boas seve al la guages ha make up he popula io of he ci y. Fo example, he i e a io al busi ess school es ablished a campus i Feb ua y 2010, offe i g a Execu ive MBA a d execu ive educa io cou ses. New Yo k U ive si y ope ed a gove me -spo so ed sa elli e campus i Abu Dhabi i Sep embe 2010.131

All schools i he emi a e a e u de he au ho i y of he Abu Dhabi Educa io Cou cil. This o ga iza io ove sees a d admi is e s public schools a d lice ses a d i spec s p iva e schools. F om 2009, he cou cil has b ough ove housa ds of lice sed eache s f om a ive E glish speaki g cou ies o suppo hei New School Model P og am i gove me schools.

Abu Dhabi Educa io Cou cil (ADEC) mai ai s a comp ehe sive af e -school p og am fo i e es ed a d ale ed jiuji su s ude s.132 The Abu Dhabi Jiuji su Schools P og am bega i 2008 u de he pa o age of c ow p i ce Mohammed bi Zayed Al Nahya , a kee B azilia jiu-ji su compe i o . The p og am lau ched i 14 schools fo pupils i g ades 6 a d 7 a d has si ce expa ded o 42 gove me schools, wi h 81 B azilia coaches b ough i as i s uc o s.133

۹ o 13-yea -old s ude s a e augh B azilia jiu-ji su as pa of he cu iculum. The pla is fo up o 500 schools o be pa icipa i g i he school-Ji su p og am by 2015. The p ojec was se up by special eques of Sheikh Mohammad bi Zayed Al Nahya o he head coach of he Emi a es jiu-ji su eam, Ca los Ca lão Sa os, ow also he ma agi g di ec o of he School-Ji su P ojec .134

Eve y yea i he seaso of admissio s a exhibi io is lau ched i Abu Dhabi Exhibi io Ce e u de gove me supe visio .135 U ive si ies f om eve y co e of he wo ld exhibi hei ca ee p og ams a d schola ship p og ams. He io -Wa U ive si y, U ive si y of Bol o , Camb idge U ive si y, Oxfo d U ive si y, he Pe oleum I s i u e, Khalifa U ive si y, a d Abu Dhabi U ive si y a e d.

I Oc obe 2019 Abu Dhabi a ou ced he wo ld’s fi s g adua e-level AI esea ch i s i u io , Mohamed bi Zayed U ive si y of A ificial I ellige ce (MBZUAI). I e ables g adua io fo s ude s, busi esses a d gove me s o adva ce a ificial i ellige ce. The u ive si y bega accep i g applica io s fo mas e s a d PhD p og ammes a yea befo e he classes, which a e scheduled o begi i Sep embe 2020.136

Spo sedi

I Abu Dhabi, c icke a d foo ball a e popula . The ci y has mul iple i e a io al c icke ou ame s.137 The ci y has fou foo ball s adiums, amely Al Jazee a S adium, Al Wahda S adium a d Sheikh Zayed Foo ball S adium (Zayed Spo s Ci y) a d Hazza S adium. ZSC also co ai s a e is cou , a ice i k, a d a bowli g alley. Si ce 2009, Abu Dhabi has hos ed he G a d P ix Fo mula O e ace eve y yea i Novembe o Decembe a he Yas Ma i a Ci cui .138 Mo o spo is popula h oughou he cou y a d he ci cui has also hos ed o he eve s such as he V8 Supe ca s se ies of Dubai.

Abu Dhabi G a d Slamedi

Abu Dhabi egula ly hos s he I e a io al Judo Fede a io Abu Dhabi g a d slam. E ge de i g some c i icism, he I e a io al Judo Fede a io efused o allow he Is aeli flag a d he Is aeli a io al a hem a he i e a io al games i 2017. Some efe ed o his ac io as a i-Semi ic.139140 The ba o Is aeli symbols was lif ed i 2018 a d Is aeli flag a d he a io al a hem was allowed o be displayed.141 Is aeli mi is e of spo s Mi i Regev was also allowed o a e d he eve .141

Special Olympics Wo ld Games Abu Dhabi 2019edi

I Ma ch 2019, Abu Dhabi hos ed he fi s Special Olympics Wo ld Games i he Middle Eas . The eve ook place f om 14 o 21 Ma ch 2019 a d fea u ed mo e ha 7,500 a hle es pa icipa i g i 24 spo i g discipli es. The official Wo ld Games Flame of Hope was li i A he s a d flow o Abu Dhabi, whe e i he emba ked o he o ch u , visi i g all seve emi a es of he UAE.142

Si es a d a ac io sedi

Abu Dhabi has ma y si es a d a ac io s ha i clude he Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Ma iam Umm Eisa Mosque, Emi a es Palace, Yas Ma i a Ci cui , The Co iche, Hayya ii Towe s, E ihad Towe s, Yas Ma i a, Yas Wa e wo ld Abu Dhabi, Fe a i Wo ld Abu Dhabi, Louv e Abu Dhabi, Yas Isla d, Saadiya Isla d, Jubail Ma g ove Pa k.143

O 29 Ap il 2022, Abu Dhabi a ou ced a 100% capaci y fo comme cial ac ivi ies, ou is a ac io s a d eve s i he emi a e.144

abu dhabi

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